Text Size S M L
The CEM Staff: Three Notable Figures Print E-mail
  
NOTES


1.  Most material about Tseng was derived from Rhoads (2005), 19-58.  Tseng had variant names in Chinese: some scholars consider the equivalent of "Laisun" as 兰生, while others regard the latter as an alias; his zi (字) was "Hengzhong" 恒忠. The report of his return to China by The Springfield Republican was retold in "Recall of Chan Laisun," New York Times, Aug. 26, 1875, p. 2

2.  Biographical material about Kwong can be found in the following sources:
(a) [隐名]《求索东西天地间─近代东亚知识分子的困惑与追寻》:五.沟通中西,以译作桥的邝富灼; 华大社科网  [unknown author], “Exploring the East-West Divide: The Quest and Bewilderment of Chinese Intellectuals in Recent History: Part 5. Kuang Fuzhuo’s Use of Translation as a Cultural Bridge between China and the West”, article posted on Huazhong University Social Studies website  <http://skc.ccnu.edu.cn/gxsjl/Show.asp?id=261> (2009/09/04).
(b) 吴志诚:《人物春秋:聚龙村名人邝其照─清末岭南报业界巨子》(Wu Zhicheng, “Personal Histories: Famous Son of Julong Village, Kuang Qizhao—A Giant of the Newspaper Business in South China in the Late Qing”), posted on 广州文史网址 http://www.gzzxws.gov.cn/gxsl/rwcq/200910/t20091030_15160.htm> (2010/12/27).
(c) Further details were kindly made available by Prof. E.J.M. Rhoads and by Sam Wong 黄植良, great-great grandson of Kwong Ki Chiu.
(d)  Bruce A. Chan, "A Forgotten Qing Era Progressive: Kwong Ki Chiu - Lexicographer, Interpreter, Textbook Author, Newspaper Publisher" in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. 53, 2013: [227]-261.

3.  Some details of Kwong’s life are derived from a transcript of a manuscript of an interview conducted by H.H. Bancroft, when Kwong visited the Library at Berkeley, California on 9 Jan. 1883, on his return journey to China: University of California, Berkeley, The Bancroft Library, manuscript collection: BANC MSS P-N 2, “‘The Chinese in America’ by Kwang Ki-Chaou” 
<http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb9h4nb3bg/?order=4&brand=oac4>
(2009/09/04). “1836” was purportedly supplied by Kwong as his birth year during the interview; but he further stated that he had attended the Central College in Hong Kong.  However, there appears to be an inconsistency in timing: the College was opened in 1862 when Kwong, if born in 1836, would have been 26 years old.  On the other hand, if he was born in 1845, he might have been just young enough to study there in the higher grades.

4.  New Haven Register, 21 April, 1879: "Kwong began life as a druggist.  After keeping a shop in Hong Kong for a few years, he went to Australia.  There were many Chinamen in Melbourne, but no physician.  Kwong Ki Chin [sic] took over a cargo of herbs and roots, and speedily had to send for more.  In five years he was able to return to China with a fortune and a knowledge of the English language, which secured for him an appointment in the home department.  He was rapidly advanced to a mandarin of the fifth rank, and after two trips around the world in the interest of the emperor, he was assigned to the American educational mission."

5.  According to Louise Su Tang, a granddaughter of Kwong Pin Kong, in her historical novel, Cantonese Yankee (Pasadena, CA: Oak Garden Press, 2010), pp. 10-11.

6.  See “Kwong’s English Phrases,” Hartford Daily Courant, Dec. 24, 1880, p. 2; “To Return to China”, Hartford Daily Courant, Dec. 21, 1882, p. 1; “Departure of Mr. Kwong”, Hartford Daily Courant, Dec. 27, 1882, p. 2.

7. Still a useful reference tool, this dictionary, in digital format, is freely available from Internet Archive at: http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023356219

8. “The Chinese Commissioners,” Hartford Courant, 21 Apr. 1879: “… his American friends frequently meet at his table.  To dine with Kwong Ki Chin [sic] has been the desire of many eminent gentlemen in Hartford, but in order to do so, it has been necessary to get the social endorsement of Rev. J. Twichell or Mark Twain, and at Kwong Ki Chin's table it was that ladies have sat down to eat with Chinese gentlemen.”

9.  “Review: Dictionary of English Phrases…”, North China Herald, June 15, 1883, p. 681; E.J. Edwards, “How I taught the Mandarin the American Idiom,” The Atlanta Constitution, Feb. 28, 1913, p. 14.

10.  “A Chinese View of it”, Hartford Daily Courant, May 2, 1882, p. 2:  “Mr. Kwong Ki Chiu of this city is doing a useful work through the columns of the New York Herald, in giving in a temperate and yet forcible manner the views of an intelligent Chinaman upon the anti-Chinese legislation of congress and upon the speeches of congressmen.”
 
11.  Henry S. Cohn & Harvey Gee, “No, No, No, No!”: Three Sons of Connecticut Who Opposed the Chinese Exclusion Acts,” in Connecticut Public Interest Law Journal (November 2003), Paper 5, p. 56: <http://lsr.nellco.org/uconn_cpilj/5>   

12.  “New Publications”, New York Times, Mar. 12, 1882, p. 6.

13.  “The Noah Webster of the Chinese”, Hartford Daily Courant, Dec. 3, 1912, p. 5.

14.  “Mr. Kwong Ki Chiu,” Hartford Courant, Oct. 11, 1884, p. 1.

15.  In 1894, the paper had a circulation of over 3,000 and was mailed to Chinese worldwide, for a yearly subscription of $8 – Florence O’Driscoll, M.P., “How the Chinese Work and Live”,  in The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, vol. 49, No. 1 (Nov. 1894): 68.