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Liang Pe Yuk


1. At Phillips Andover  4. c.1903


Pinyin & Chinese characters Liang Pixu 梁丕旭

Variant Spellings & Other Names Chentung Liang Chen
Leang Pe Yuk
Leang Pi Cook
Liang Pi Yu
Liang Pi Cook
Liang Shing
Leang Shung
Sir Chentung Liang Cheng
Sir Chun Tung Shing
Sir Chun Tung Liang Shing

Other Chinese Names 梁震东, 梁诚; 字 义衷

Detachment 4
LaFargue No. 118
Date of Birth 30 Nov., 18641

Place of Birth Huangpu village 黄埔村, Panyu County 番禺县 Guangdong Province

Age at Departure for U.S. 12 (Lunar Calendar)
Date of Death 3 Feb., 19172
Place of Death Hong Kong2
Place(s) of residence in U.S. Amherst, MA;
Andover, MA (1880 U.S. Census)

American Host Family/ies Mrs. Moody (Julia Mack Harrington);
Nathan McCardy (1880 U.S. Census)
School(s), with dates Philips Andover Academy, 1878-81 (class of 1882, unable to graduate before CEM closure); taught Greek by a teacher from Amherst College before entering Andover.

Notable activities/ awards in school

Outstanding baseball player on the Andover baseball team (right fielder and star batter); renowned for his pitching and for scoring 3 runs, helping Andover beat its rival and sister school, Phillips Exeter Academy, in their 1881 game.

He "also pulled stroke oar in the boat crew" ("Prince Chen in New York", NYT, Aug. 10, p. 3).

College/University, with dates

Notable activities/ awards in College

Degree/Diploma Obtained, with date 1885: made an honorary graduate of Class of ’85 by Amherst College;
June 24, 1903: LL.D. (Hon.) from Amherst (NYT, June 25, 1903); June 27, 1906: LL.D. (Hon.) from Yale College (NYT, 28 June, 1906).

First Assignment in China Assigned to Naval school in Tianjin

Later Positions

Assigned as a clerk to Zongli Yamen, having obtained as a "student by purchase" (監生) the rank of 2d class Ass't Sec of a board;3

1885 July: Liang joined the suite of Zhang Yinhuan 张荫桓, Chinese Minister to USA, Spain and Peru and became a trusted follower of Zhang. In 1886, he was 2d rank interpreter at the Chinese Legation in Washington;

1894: served as 3d rank Consultant (参赞) to Zhang’s mission to Japan;

1897: 1st rank Consultant in Zhang’s mission to Britain;

1897: appointed First Secretary to Prince Chun 醇亲王载沣 whom he accompanied to London as China’s representative attending 60th Jubilee of reign of Queen Victoria;
Dubbed Honorary Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George (K.C.M.G.);
Upon his return, was promoted to Expectant Daotai of Chihli Metropolitan Province 直隶候选道台4

1901: Accompanied Prince Chun as his First Secretary to Berlin on China's Mission of Expiation to apologize for the murder of German Minister Baron von Ketteler in June 1900 during the Boxer Crisis;5

1902 Feb 26: Appointed First Secretary to Prince Tsai Chen (Zaizhen 载振) on the special embassy to convey Emperor Guangxu's congratulations to King Edward VII on his coronation in June.  Embassy included 3 other CEM alumni at lower rank: Wong Kai Kah, Woo Ying Fo and Paun Sze Chi ("The Special Embassy to London," North China Herald, 1902-2-26, p. 392); Dubbed Honorary Knight Commander of the Victorian Order (K.C.V.O.);

1902 July 12: Promoted to 3rd rank Mandarin; Appointed Minister to USA, with collateral responsibility for Spain, Peru, Cuba (August 29) and Mexico (November 8)6;

1903 April 5: Assumed post in Washington, D.C.;
As Minister to the U.S., in 1903 his subordinates included the following CEM alumni: at D.C. - 2nd cl. interpreter, Yung Kwai (Rong Kui 容揆 II, 34), 3rd cl. interpreter, Sue Yi Chew (Su Ruizhao 苏锐钊 II, 35); at New York - translation officer, Luk Wing Chuan (Lu Yongquan 陆永泉 I, 23); at Madrid - Chargé d'Affaires, Chung Mun Yew (Zhong Wenyao 钟文耀 I, 2)7;

1903 November 8: Relieved of responsibility for Spain and Mexico6;

As Minister to the U.S., Liang successfully negotiated the partial reduction (by about $12 million) of the Boxer Indemnity owed by China to the U.S.;

1907 July 3: Recalled to China for other duties6;

1907: Director of Canton-Hankow Railway (Canton section); President, Board of Foreign Affairs; Comptroller General of Maritime Customs at Peking (The Phillips Bulletin, alumni notes, Aug. 1907)

1909: Member of the Chinese Imperial Naval Commission, headed by Prince Hsun (Zaixun 载洵), on its study tour of navies in England, France, Germany and Russia; 

1910-11: Chinese Minister to Berlin; awarded by the German Emperor, the Order of the Red Eagle, 1st Class, the highest honour conferred on foreigners (Hong Kong Telegraph, 1913.3.7, p.3);

1912: Represented China at the International Convention on the Prohibition of Opium at The Hague, Netherlands; 

Resigned from public office upon fall of Qing Government; retired at first to Huangpu Village, Guangdong, and later to 33 Robinson Road, Hong Kong.

Employment sector(s) Government: Diplomatic service; Railway Administration.

Final rank, if in gov't service 1st rank Mandarin, awarded 1907;

Father's name Liang Yaojie 梁尧阶

Mother's name  
Wife/wives 3 wives, surnamed Huang 黄
Family relations w/ other CEM students

Children's Names 5 sons: Ardi Liang 梁世瑞(少东), Arlu Liang 梁世恩, 梁世杰, 梁世荣, Sai Wah Liang 梁世华; and 2 daughters: Wunmai Liang, 梁庆华, Rose Yew King Liang 梁耀华

GS's: Guy Cheng 郑兆佳, Lot Siu Kay Cheng 郑兆祺, Chao Min Cheng 郑兆明, Shou Tsang Liang 梁寿僧, James Shou Hong Liang 梁寿康,  Edward Shou Kei Liang 梁寿祺, George Shou Kwong Liang 梁寿光, Henry Shou Shan Liang 梁寿山, Andy Liang Shou On 梁寿安, Darwin Tat Man Liang 梁达民, Ken Kin Man Liang 梁建民, Yat Man Liang 梁逸民, Chiu Man Liang 梁超民, Sik Man Liang 梁适民.

GD's (incomplete): Tak Bo 德宝, May, 德芬, Maria Tak Woo 德和, 德尊, Elizabeth Shou Hei Liang 梁寿熙

GGS's (incomplete): Tsang Wing Kwong 曾荣光 (Tsang Kwong 曾江), Luk Wai Lap 陆伟立, James Patrick Ka Bun Liang 梁嘉彬, Stephen Ka Bong Liang 梁嘉邦, William Ka Bill Liang 梁嘉标, Anthony Chin 陈, Joseph Chin 陈, Edmond Ka Kwun Liang 梁嘉裙, Kenneth a Chyu Liang 梁嘉柱, Lester Ka Wai Liang 梁嘉威, Bryan Tong, Willard Lo, heldon Chun , Carson Kar Shuen Liang 梁嘉旋, Terence Kar Ming Liang 梁嘉名, Gordon Hok Man Yau 邱学文, Ernest Hok Shing Yau 邱学诚, Alan Ho Lam Yu 余浩霖, Albert Kar Ching Liang 梁嘉正, Bernard Kar Wai Liang 梁嘉维, Rex Kar Sin Liang 梁嘉善, Kar Woo Liang 梁嘉禾, Kar Chun  Liang 梁嘉骏, Kar Ching Liang 梁嘉澄

GGD's (incomplete): Tsang Yi Jing 绮贞 (Lin Tsui 林翠), Tsang Yi Ling 绮玲(小宝), Angela Liang 梁嘉勋, Rowena Ka Bik Liang 梁嘉璧, Elsie Chin, Judith hin 陈敏儿, Edwina Ka Pui Liang 梁嘉佩, Sharon Liang 梁 , Lorena Tong, Adrianne Tong, Lela Tong, Regina Lo, Denise Lo, Sharon Chun, Sheila Chun, Stephanie Chun, Ronnie Man Yee Liang 梁敏宜, Cynthia Siu Wai Yau 邱小慧, Josephine Kwai Chun Yu 余桂珍, Cynthia Kwai Shan Yu 余桂珊, Pearl Kwai Chu Yu 余桂珠, Kar Bo Liang 梁嘉宝

Other Liang’s cousin Zhaohuang (肇煌) was in the upper gentry (大绅) in Guangzhou.

Notes and Sources

1. D.O.B. and family information supplied by great grandson, Stephen Liang.

2.  Sourced from his Hong Kong Death Certificate.  "Canton" as given by Yung Shang Him (10/1939), p. 256, is clearly an error.

3.  A category of men admitted to the National University without having passed the civil service exams, in consideration of their contributions of grain or money to the State. See Hucker (1985), p. 150. Having been educated in the U.S., CEM returnees did not have the necessary degrees for advancement in government, hence the purchase of titles by Liang and other members of the CEM early in their careers.

4. Luo [1978], p.4.

5. The Mission of Expiation was held up at the Swiss-German border when Kaiser Wilhelm II belatedly demanded that Prince Chun and his retinue must perform the kowtow to him as an act of expiation.  Due to strong objections from the Chinese Government, the Kaiser relented and accepted three bows given in a private audience with just the Prince and the Chinese Minister Chang Yinyuan 张荫垣.  By some accounts (unconfirmed in contemporary press accounts), Liang was credited with protesting the Kaiser's demand and suggesting the diplomatic compromise that saved face for China (e.g. Whitehill (1974), p. 11, and various Chinese sources).
6. Diplomatic Postings (1985), 21-27, passim.

7.  Luo [1978] , p. 26. According to this source, Liang also appointed, at San Francisco, Ouyang King (Ouyang Geng 欧阳庚 I, 5) as a translation officer.  However, this is a error: Ouyang was serving as Vice-Consul there, 1886-1909.