In English

Boorman, Howard L. and Richard C. Howard, eds. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China, 4 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967 et seqq.

Britton, Roswell S. The Chinese Periodical Press, 1800-1912. Shanghai; Hong Kong; Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 1933.

Bryson, Mrs. [Mary Isabella], John Kenneth Mackenzie, Medical Missionary to China. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1891.

Chan, Bruce A., "A Forgotten Qing Era Progressive: Kwong Ki Chiu - Lexicographer, Interpreter, Textbook Author, Newspaper Publisher" in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. 53, 2013: [227]-261.

Cohen, Paul A. Between Tradition and Modernity: Wang T’ao and Reform in Late Ch’ing China. Cambridge, MA; London: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1987. 

Daggett, Leonard M., ed. A History of the Class of Eighty-Four Yale College 1880-1914. Published for the Class 1914. [New Haven:] The Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Company, [1914.]

Directory of Yale Men in China 1905.  Compiled by Charles S. Leavenworth, Shanghai: North-China Herald Office [Preface 1905].  (Excerpt in typescript, in LaFargue Collection, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA.)

Farkas, Lani Ah Tye. Bury My Bones in America. Nevada City, CA: Carl Mautz Publishing, 1998.

Geer, Elihu, comp. Geer’s Hartford City Directory, 1878. Hartford, Connecticut [n.d.]. 

Hartford Public High School. Catalogue of The Hartford Public High School, 1941: Tercentenary Edition 1638-1938. Hartford, CT: Hartford Press, 1941.

Hinners, David G. Tong Shao-yi and His Family: A Saga of Two Countries and Three Generations. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 1999.

Holden, Reuben A. Yale: a pictorial history. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1967

Holmes, Charles Elmer, comp. The Statistics of the Class of ‘Eighty-Four Yale College. New Haven: Hoggson & Robinson, Printers, 1884.

Huang, Hui. “Overseas Studies and the Rise of Foreign Cultural Capital in Modern China.” International Sociology 17.1 (Mar. 2002): 35-55.

Hucker, Charles O. Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985.

Hummel, Arthur W., ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. 1944. (2 Vols, pages numbered consecutively: Vol I, pp. i-xii, 1-604; Vol II, pp. 605-1103.) 

Hung, William. “Huang Tsun-Hsien’s Poem ‘The Closure of the Educational Mission in America.’” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 18 (1955): 50-73.

Johnston, George Washington and Charles Colebrook Sherman. Yale 1883. The Book of the Class Compiled after its Quartercentenary Reunion by George Washington Johnston, Class Secretary, and Charles Colebrook Sherman.  With an Account of Changes and Development at Yale since 1883 by Charles Cameron Clarke.  Printed for the Class.  New Haven, CT: Tuttle, Moorehouse & Taylor Press, 1910.

Johnston, George Washington, comp. Class of 1883 Yale: Twenty Years Record. [n.p.]: by the compiler, [n.d.].

Kuo, Ting-yee and Kwang-Ching Liu. “Self-strengthening: the pursuit of Western technology.” In John King Fairbank, ed., The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10, Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, Part I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

LaFargue, Thomas E.  China’s First Hundred: Educational Mission Students in the United States, 1872-1881.  Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, reprint, 1987; originally published: Pullman, WA: State College of Washington, 1942.

LaFargue (Pullman). Thomas LaFargue Collection, Special Collections library, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA. (Letters, speeches, miscellaneous documents, photographs and working papers of Thomas E. LaFargue pertaining to the Chinese Educational Mission, 1872-1881).

Lee Yan Phou. When I Was A Boy In China. Boston: D. Lothrop Company, 1887.

Lee Yan Phou. When I Was A Boy In China. Edited and with introductory comments by Richard V. Lee, MD, FACP, FRGS.  Reissue, completely reset.  Printed by Xlibris Corporation, 2003.

Leung, Edwin Pak-Wah.  “China’s Decision to Send Students to the West: the Making of a ‘Revolutionary Policy’.”  Asian Profile 16.5 (Oct 1988): 391-400.

Leung, Edwin Pak-Wah. “The Making of the Chinese Yankees: School Life of the Chinese Educational Mission Students in New England.” Asian Profile 16.5 (Oct 1988): 401-412.

Lo Hsiang-lin. Hong Kong and Western Cultures. Tokyo: The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies; Honolulu: East West Center Press, 1963. 

Lo Hsiang-lin. Liang Cheng: Chinese Minister in Washington (1903-1907). Hong Kong: Institute of Chinese Culture, 1977.

New, Peter Kong-ming. “Footnote on a Yankee Chinese: Letters of Shang-chow New, 1913-1917.” Amerasia 11.2 (1984): 81-95.

New, Shan Chow, attrib. “Chinaland: Across the Sea.”  The Exonian.  Exeter NH: Phillips Exeter Academy (29 May 1880).

Phelps, William Lyon. Autobiography With Letters. New York, London, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1939.

Pierson, George Wilson. Yale: College and University 1871-1937. Volume 1 Yale College: An Educational History 1871–1921. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952.

Pomerantz-Zhang, Linda.  Wu Tingfang (1842-1922): Reform and Modernization in Modern Chinese History. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1992.

Rhoads, Edward J. M. “In the Shadow of Yung Wing: Zeng Laishun and the Chinese Educational Mission to the United States.” Pacific Historical Review 74.1 (2005): 19-58. (This article has been updated by the author’s unpublished supplement dated 29 March 2005.)

Rhoads, Edward J.M.  Stepping Forth into the World: The Chinese Educational Mission to the United States, 1872-81. (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011).

Robinson, Arthur G.  “The Senior Returned Students: A Brief Account of the Chinese Educational Commission (1872-1881) under Dr. Yung Wing,” (Pamphlet reprint of the article titled "Pilgrims to Western Seats of Learning. China's First Educational Mission to U.S." in The Peking and Tientsin Times of June 24, 1932).  Tientsin: The Tientsin Press Ltd., July 12, 1932.  [Includes a Chinese title 《最先留美學生記事錄》。蔡廷幹題 with calligraphy by Tsai Ting Kan of the CEM's First Detachment].

Robyn, Chris. Building the Bridge: The Chinese Educational Mission to the United States: A Sino-American Historico-Cultural Synthesis, 1872-1881. Unpublished M.Ph. Dissertation.  Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1996.

Sawyer, Joseph H. ‘“The Chinese Christian Home Mission.” The Independent, July 5, 1894. Reprinted: Easthampton, 1917 [12pp], with an unsigned Foreword.

Smith, Carl T. Chinese Christians: Elites, Middlemen, and the Church in Hong Kong. Oxford University Press, 1985; reissued by Hong Kong University Press, 2005, with "Introduction to the Paperback Edition" by Christopher Munn.

Snow, Phillip. The Fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese Occupation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003

Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China, Second Edition.  New York and London: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999.

Sze, Sao-ke Alfred. Sao-Ke Alfred Sze: Reminiscences of his Early Years, as Told to Anming Fu, Translated by Amy C. Wu. Washington, D.C.: [privately printed], 1962. 

Teng, Ssu-yu and John K. Fairbank, eds. China’s Response to the West: a Documentary Survey, 1839-1923. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1954.

Tong Kai-son [alias of Tong Kwo On], "The Christian Experiences of the Students of the Chinese Educational Mission to the U.S.". China's Young Men (The YMCA, China), [part 1] 8:3 (1905), 26-28; [part 2] 8:4 (1905), 25-28. (Copy of original publications kindly supplied by Professor Tang Shaoming, grand-nephew of Tong Kwo On.)

[Tong Kwo On]. History and Outcome of the Chinese Educational Mission to the United States, (Reprinted from The Chinese Times of February 11th and 18th, 1888). Tientsin: Tientsin Printing Company, [1888]. (Copy of original pamphlet kindly supplied by Reed Tang.)

Whitehill, Walter Muir. Portrait of a Chinese Diplomat of the Last Manchu Emperors: Sir Chentung Liang Cheng. Boston: Boston Athenaeum, 1974.

Wright, Arnold and H. A. Cartwright, eds. Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China: Their History, People, Commerce, Industries and Resources. London…etc.: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Company, Ltd., 1908.

Wright, Richard N J. The Chinese Steam Navy 1862-1945. London: Chatham Publishing, 2000.

Yale University. Sheffield Scientific School. Eighteenth Annual Report of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College. New Haven. 1884.

Young, Dana B. “Yung Kwai’s ‘Recollections of the Chinese Educational Mission.’” Unpublished paper read at Conference on Yung Wing and the Chinese Educational Mission 1872-1881, Yale University and Hartford, CT, 28-29 September 2001. 

Yung Kwai. “Recollections of the Chinese Educational Mission.” Unpublished and untitled manuscript (ca. 1884-1885).  Transcribed by Dana B. Young for distribution at Conference on Yung Wing and the Chinese Educational Mission 1872-1881, Yale University and Hartford, CT, 28-29 September 2001. Original ms. now in Yung Kwai Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut.

Yung, Richard. To Our Grandchildren. Singapore: [Privately printed by Booksmith], 2007. 

Yung, Richard Him. “Yung Hoy’s Legacy: The Influence He Had on His Descendants.” Unpublished paper read at Conference on Yung Wing and the Chinese Educational Mission, 1872-1881, Yale University and Hartford, CT, 28-29 September 2001.

Yung, Shang Him. The Chinese Educational Mission and Its Influence. Shanghai: Kelley & Walsh, Ltd., n.d. (Preface dated 28 Sept. 1939).

Yung, Shang Him. “The Chinese Educational Mission and Its Influence”. T’ien Hsia Monthly.  9:3 (Oct. 1939): 225-256.

Yung, Wing. My Life in China and America. New York: Henry Holt, 1909. Reprint edition by Ayer Company Publishers, 2000.

Yung, Ying-yue. “The Life of Yung Hoy 容開 (1863-1933).” Unpublished paper prepared for distribution at mini-conference, Chinese Pioneer Scholars in the Nineteenth Century U.S.: A Little-Known Aspect of the Chinese Diaspora.  Yale University, 21 September 1998.


Boundless Learning: Foreign-educated Students of Modern China «近代中國留學生展». Catalogue of the exhibition, “Boundless Learning”, held in the Hong Kong Museum of History, November 2003. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Leisure and Cultural Services Department, 2003.

Crush, Peter. Imperial Railways of North China «关内外铁路». Beijing: Xinhua Publishing 北京: 新华出版社, 2014.

Current Eminent Persons in China «中国近代名人图鉴». Taiwan: Tianyi Publishing 天一出版社, 1977. Reprint of 1925 Shanghai edition with English introduction by Tsai Ting Kan [of the CEM].

Liang, Zhenxing, ed. Celebrities in History of Zhuhai «珠海历史名人», Vol. 1. Zhuhai: Zhuhai Publishing, 2001.

Who’s Who of American Returned Students «游美同学录», 北京清华学校编. Beijing: Tsing Hua College, 1917; reprinted by Chinese Materials Center, Inc., San Francisco, 1978.

[M. C. Powell, ed.,] Who’s Who in China, Containing the pictures and biographies of China’s best known political, financial, business and professional men. Third edition. Shanghai: The China Weekly Review, 1925. 


Mss. Chinese

Chuyang Huihua Zougao Xuesheng Xingming Lu – Neifu Chen Liqiu Qinshi Shiwen. 出洋回華奏稿學生姓名錄–內附陳麗秋欽使詩文 ("Student Name List in Draft Report Memorial Upon Returning to China from Overseas – including Minister Chen Liqiu’s Poem"). Unpublished ms. kept in the National Museum of China, Beijing. Copy courtesy Professor Liang Zanxun 梁赞勋.

Tang Yuanzhan 唐元湛. Youmei Liuxue Tongren Xingming Lu. 遊美留學同人姓名錄. Unpublished ms. in compiler’s hand, undated.  Zhuhai Municipal Archives, Zhuhai, Guangdong. Copy courtesy Professor Liang Zanxun 梁赞勋.

Wen Bingzhong 温秉忠. Zuixian Liumei Tongxue Lu. 最先留美同學錄. Unpublished ms. copy of Wen Bingzhong’s original ms., dated September 1924.  Copy made by Huang Binghui 黃冰慧 (a.k.a. Jianhong 劍虹), son of CEM student Wong Chung Liang (Huang Zhongliang 黄仲良 I, 7), dated 16 December 1951. National Museum of China, Beijing. Copy courtesy Professor Liang Zanxun 梁赞勋.

Ding, Zhihua 丁志华 , “Di Yige Danren Haiguan Fu Shuiwusi De Zhongguoren 第一个担任海关副税务司的中国人” (“The First Chinese Deputy Customs Commissioner”). Journal of Xuzhou Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), 31.3 (May 2005): 1-5. Copy courtesy Professor Liang Zanxun 梁赞勋

Kao, Tsunglu 高宗魯, tr. and ed. Zhongguo Youtong Liumei Shi 《中國幼童留美史》 [Translation with commentary of Thomas E. LaFargue, China’s First Hundred]. Taipei: 1982.

Kao, Tsunglu 高宗鲁, tr. and ann. Zhongguo Liumei Youtong Shuxin Chi   (Collected Letters of the CEM Students) 《中国留美幼童书信集》, 台北:传记文学出版社, Taipei: Biographical Publishing, 1986.

Liang Biying 梁碧莹. 艰难的外交:晚清中国驻美公使研究 ("Hard Diplomacy: A Study of the Late Qing Ministers to the United States"). 天津古籍出版社. Tianjin 2004. 

Liang Jianrong 梁建荣: “近代留美学生黄有章”, 中国人民政治协商会议 珠海市委员会文史资料委员会: 《珠海文史》 12 期 (2001 年 12 月), 96-99.

Luo Xianglin 罗香林. Liang Cheng di chushi Meiguo 《梁诚的出使美国》, 台北:文海出版社, Taibei: Wen hai chu ban she [1978]. 

Qian, Gang 钱钢 & Hu Jingcao 胡劲草. Da Qing Liumei Youtong Ji: Chinese Educational Commission Students.《大清留美幼童记》 Hong Kong: Zhonghua Book Company, 2003.

Qian, Gang 钱钢 & Hu Jingcao 胡劲草. Liumei Youtong: Chinese Educational Mission Students. 《留美幼童:中国最早的官派留学生》Shanghai: Wenhui Publishing, 2004.

Qiao Songdu 乔松都, “留美幼童一段鲜为人知的历史” ("A Little-known Episode of CEM History").  Paper prepared for presentation at Conference Marking 140th Anniversary of Yung Wing’s Proposal and Reunion of Descendants of Yung Wing and CEM Students 记念容闳留美教育计划启动140周年暨容闳与留美幼童后裔联谊会, Zhuhai, China, November 17-19, 2010.  Unpublished; issued in 《会议文集》 ("Collected Conference Papers").

Qingji Zhong Wai Shiling Nianbiao (Chinese and Foreign Diplomatic Postings in the Qing Period) 《清季中外使领年表》. Taipei: Wenhai Publishing 文海出版社, 1985.

Shi, Ni 石霓. Guannian Yu Beiju: Wanqing Liumei Youtong Mingyun Pouxi 《观念与悲剧:晚清留美幼童命运剖析》 (Ideology and Tragedy: An Analysis of the Fate of the American-educated Youth in the Late Qing). Shanghai: People’s Publishing, 2000.

Shi, Ni 石霓, tr. and ann. Rong Hong Zichuan: “Wo Zai Zhongguo he Meiguo de Shenghuo” 《容闳自传:“我在中国和美国的生活”》 (Autobiography of Rong Hong:My Life in China and America”). Shanghai: Baijia Publishing, 2003.

Tang Mingzhen 唐明珍: "留美学生唐杰臣及其后人概况", 《珠海文史》, 14, p. 60-1.

Xie Fang, 谢方: 《中国铁路之父: 詹天佑 》. 广州: 广东人民出版社, 2008.  Father of China’s Railways: Zhan Tianyou. Guangzhou: Guangdong People's Publishing, 2008.  

Xu, Run 徐润. Xu Yuzhai Zixu Nianpu 《徐愚斎自叙年谱》 (Autobiographical Chronicle of Xu Yuzhai). Documents of Recent Chinese History Series, No. 51. Taipei: Wenhai Publishing, 1978.

Yung, Yingyue 容应萸, “容星橋: 容闳与孫中山的接触点” (“The Meeting Point among Yung Hoy, Yung Wing and Sun Yat-sen”). 《容闳与中国近代化》(Yung Wing and China’s Modernization). 珠海出版社, 珠海, 1999 (Zhuhai: Zhuhai Chubansha, 1999).

Yung, Yingyue 容應萸, “留美幼童與美國家庭:有關容星橋的考察“ (“CEM Students and American Families: A Case Study of Rong Xingqiao”).  Paper prepared for presentation at Conference Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of Yung Wing’s Graduation from Yale, Zhuhai, 17 November 2004.  Courtesy of the author.

Zhan Tongji (ed.), 詹同济: 《詹天佑: 大江南北主持筑路文献资料集》. 成都: 四川大学出版社,1992.  Zhan Tianyou: North-South Railway Construction in China: Collected Materials. Chengdu: University of Sichuan Press, 1992.

Zhan Tongji (ed.), 詹同济: 《詹天佑照片手迹故事集》. 澳门: 澳门出版社, 2003.  Zhan Tianyou: Selected Photographs, Writings and Stories.  Macau: Macau Publishing, 2003. 

Zhan Tongji 詹同济 译编注(translated & annotated). Zhan Tianyou Shuxin Xuanji 《詹天佑书信选集》 Selected Letters of Zhan Tianyou.  广州:华南理工大学出版社,Guangzhou: South China Technical University Press, 2006.

Zheng Hongtai 郑宏泰 and Charlie Wai Chow 周振威 《香港大佬─周寿臣》 [Shouson Chow: Hong Kong Big Shot]. 三联书店(香港)有限公司 Hong Kong: Joint Publishing, 2006.  

Zhonghua Minguo Waijiaobu Dangan Zixunchu, comp., 中华民国外交部档案资讯处编 《中国外交机关历任首长衔年表》(外交档资丛刊第一种) [Chronological Register of Posts Held by the Senior Officials in the Chinese Bureau of Foreign Affairs]。台北:台湾商务印书馆 (1988 enlarged edition of 1967 1st ed.).

Zhu Chuanyu 朱傳譽, comp. Zhan Tianyou Zhuan Ji Zi Liao 《詹天佑傳記資料》 (Biographical Materials of Zhan Tianyou). Taibei: Tianyi Publishing, 1979.

Zhuhai 珠海 Municipal authorities, comp. 珠海市政协文史委, 《珠海人物传》[Biographical notices of Zhuhai personalities]. Zhuhai, 1993.

Zhuhai 珠海 Municipal authorities, comp. Tang Shaoyi 《唐绍仪》[Illustrated biography of Tang Shaoyi]. Zhuhai, 1998.




United States

The American Missionary
The Atlanta Constitution
Brooklyn Daily Eagle
The Cleveland Leader
The Cleveland Plain Dealer
The Congregationalist
Harper’s Weekly
Hartford Courant
(formerly Hartford Daily Courant)
Hartford Daily Times
Los Angeles Herald
The New Haven Register
New York Herald-Tribune
The New York Times
The Washington Post
Sacramento Daily Record-Union
San Francisco Daily Morning Call
San Francisco Chronicle
Springfield Daily Republican
Springfield Sunday Republican
The Yale Banner

China and Hong Kong

China's Young Men (The YMCA, China)
The Chinese Times (Tianjin)
The Directory for China, Japan, and the Philippines [title varies] (Hong Kong)
East of Asia Magazine (Shanghai)
The Far Eastern Review 1904-1941 (Shanghai & Manila)
The Hong Kong Telegraph
North China Herald and Supreme Court & Consular Gazette
Shen Bao 申报 (Shanghai)
The China Mail (Hong Kong)
The Chinese Mail 香港华字日报  (Hong Kong)

Kingdom of Hawaii (pre-1898)

Daily Pacific Commercial Advertiser (Honolulu)
Hawaiian Gazette
Honolulu Daily Bulletin

Great Britain

Evangelical Christendom (London)
The Missionary Magazine and Chronicle (London)


Currently, the following web sites provide access to historical materials (some allow free downloading of items):

• "Google Book Search" (
• "Google News Archive" (
• "Internet Archive" (
• "Library of Congress Historical Newspapers of America"  (
• "NewspaperARCHIVE" (