Credits and Sources

We are much indebted to the following individuals for their valuable contributions to the creation of this web site.

Sadly, since our web site first appeared in October 2006, two of them have died, much to the loss of the community of CEM descendants and researchers.  We mourn the passing of two exceptionally knowledgeable and dedicated members.  Timothy Kao (Kao Tsung-lu) 高宗鲁 (1935-2006) began research on Yung Wing and the CEM in the early 1970s, when these subjects received little attention.  He was the founder of the Chinese Students Memorial Society, dedicated to promoting knowledge of the importance of Yung Wing and the CEM to the history of Chinese-American relations.  Prof. Kao’s publications in Chinese and English helped to illuminate the lives and careers of the 120 students.  Dr. Richard H. Yung 容应骞 (1933-2007), of Singapore, was a grandson of Young Yew Huan (Rong Yaoyuan 容耀垣 III, 66).  Despite his failing health, Richard played a key role in the start-up of the web project.  He was amicable and tireless in contacting many descendants of the CEM alumni, soliciting information from them and sharing with us everything he had learned over many years of study of his own family’s history and that of the pioneering students.
  1. Ms. Hu Jingcao 胡劲草 of CCTV 中国中央电视台 and Mr. Qian Gang 钱钢, Co-Director of the China Media Project, University of Hong Kong, the co-creators of the five-part CCTV documentary Boy Students 幼童 (2004), and co-authors of Da Qing Liumei Youtong Ji: Chinese Educational Commission Students 《大清留美幼童记》 (Hong Kong: Zhonghua Book Company, 2003); also published as Liumei Youtong: Chinese Educational Mission Students 《留美幼童: 中国最早的官派留学生》(Shanghai: Wenhui Publishing, 2004), deserve special thanks. Aside from publishing many new findings about the students, they generously provided digital copies, along with identifications, of many of the photographs used on this site;

  2. Dr. Richard Vaille Lee, grandson of Lee Yen Fu (Li Enfu 李恩富 II, 40), lent his enthusiasm and facilitated meetings among CEM descendants and scholars in support of this project. His sudden death in April 2013 was a great loss;

  3. Professor Liang Zanxun 梁赞勋, grandson of Liang Pao Chew (Liang Puzhao 梁普照 II, 58), has given much encouragement as well as practical help in obtaining valuable material and in liaising with CEM descendants and also with institutions involved in CEM research in Zhuhai and Beijing;

  4. Professor Edward J.M. Rhoads, having been a most helpful informal consultant for the team for some time, has made available much material that he had uncovered over the past few years and has generously shared the fruits of his research on the CEM students' experiences in America;

  5. Professor Yung Ying-yue 容应萸, granddaughter of Young Yew Huan (Rong Yaoyuan 容耀垣 III, 66), made available to us her articles on her grandfather and the CEM.

  6. Among the 4th generation descendants who have contributed valuable materials about their forbears, Mr. Reed Tang Yue 唐越, great grandson of Wong Yau Chang (Huang Youzhang 黄有章 II, 41), has most kindly shared with us his extensive findings about all aspects of the CEM. 


We are grateful to the following individuals and institutions for permission to use digital images from their collections. 

  1. Ms. Hu Jingcao 胡劲草 and Mr. Qian Gang 钱钢.  Many of the images on the web site have been made available to us in digital form courtesy of Ms. Jingcao Hu and Mr. Qian Gang.

  2. Thomas LaFargue Collection, Special Collections Library, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA. For original digital images, go to

  3. Yale University Library, New Haven, CT: Images of Yale individuals. Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library. For original high resolution digital images, go to

We do not supply photos and images upon request.  We recommend that viewers desiring access to CEM-related images for study and research purposes contact the institutions listed above for permission to copy photos.  (If clicking the URL does not work, try copying the address and pasting it into your browser window).